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Cafcit

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Drug Description


CAFCIT®
(caffeine citrate) Injection

CAFCIT®
(caffeine citrate) Oral Solution

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Both CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Injection for intravenous administration and CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution are clear, colorless, sterile, non-pyrogenic, preservative-free, aqueous solutions adjusted to pH 4.7. Each mL contains 20 mg caffeine citrate (equivalent to 10 mg of caffeine base) prepared in solution by the addition of 10 mg caffeine anhydrous to 5.0 mg citric acid monohydrate, 8.3 mg sodium citrate dihydrate and Water for Injection.

Caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant, is an odorless white crystalline powder or granule, with a bitter taste. It is sparingly soluble in water and ethanol at room temperature. The chemical name of caffeine is 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione. In the presence of citric acid it forms caffeine citrate salt in solution. The structural formula and molecular weight of caffeine citrate follows.

 

CAFCIT®   (caffeine citrate) Structural Formula Illustration

 

What are the possible side effects of caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Get emergency medical help if your child has any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using caffeine citrate and call your doctor at once if your child has any of these serious side effects:

  • stomach pain, tenderness, bloating,
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • green-colored vomit;
  • blood in the stools;
  • unusual weakness;
  • seizure (convulsions);
  • twitching or uncontrolled muscle...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Cafcit »

 

What are the precautions when taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Before taking caffeine citrate, tell your doctor or pharmacist if your infant is allergic to it; or if your infant has any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your infant's medical history, especially of: heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, stomach problems (e.g., peptic ulcers, necrotizing enterocolitis), seizures.

Caution is advised when using this drug in infants because they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially the stimulant effects (e.g., trouble sleeping, restlessness, nervousness).

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy....

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Indications & Dosage


INDICATIONS

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) is indicated for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants between 28 and < 33 weeks gestational age.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Prior to initiation of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) (caffeine citrate), baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants previously treated with theophylline, since preterm infants metabolize theophylline to caffeine. Likewise, baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants born to mothers who consumed caffeine prior to delivery, since caffeine readily crosses the placenta.

The recommended loading dose and maintenance doses of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) follow.

Dose of CAFCIT Volume Dose of CAFCIT mg/kg Route Frequency
Loading Dose 1 mL/kg 20 mg/kg Intravenous*
(over 30 minutes)
One Time
Maintenance Dose 0.25 mL/kg 5 mg/kg Intravenous*
(over 10 minutes) or Orally
Every 24 hours**
* using a syringe infusion pump
** beginning 24 hours after the loading dose

NOTE THAT THE DOSE OF CAFFEINE BASE IS ONE-HALF THE DOSE WHEN EXPRESSED AS CAFFEINE CITRATE (e.g., 20 mg of caffeine citrate is equivalent to 10 mg of caffeine base).

Serum concentrations of caffeine may need to be monitored periodically throughout treatment to avoid toxicity. Serious toxicity has been associated with serum levels greater than 50 mg/L.

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Vials containing discolored solution or visible particulate matter should be discarded.

Drug Compatibility

T o test for drug compatibility with common intravenous solutions or medications, 20 mL of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Injection were combined with 20 mL of a solution or medication, with the exception of an Intralipid® admixture, which was combined as 80 mL/80 mL. The physical appearance of the combined solutions was evaluated for precipitation. The admixtures were mixed for 10 minutes and then assayed for caffeine. The admixtures were then continually mixed for 24 hours, with further sampling for caffeine assays at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours.

Based on this testing, CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Injection, 60 mg/3 mL is chemically stable for 24 hours at room temperature when combined with the following test products.

  • Dextrose Injection, USP 5%
  • 50% Dextrose Injection USP
  • Intralipid® 20% IV Fat Emulsion
  • Aminosyn® 8.5% Crystalline Amino Acid Solution
  • Dopamine HCI Injection, USP 40 mg/mL diluted to 0.6 mg/mL with Dextrose Injection, USP 5%
  • Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP 10% (0.465 mEq/Ca+2/mL)
  • Heparin Sodium Injection, USP 1000 units/mL diluted to 1 unit/mL with Dextrose Injection, USP 5%
  • Fentanyl Citrate Injection, USP 50 µg/mL diluted to 10 µg/mL with Dextrose Injection, USP 5%

HOW SUPPLIED

Both CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Injection and CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution are available as clear, colorless, sterile, non-pyrogenic, preservative-free, aqueous solutions in 3 mL colorless glass vials. The vials of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Injection are sealed with a teflonfaced gray rubber stopper and an aluminum overseal with a white flip-off polypropylene disk inset. The vials of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution are sealed with a teflon-faced gray rubber stopper and a peel-off aluminum overseal with a blue flip-off polypropylene disk inset.

Both the injection and oral solution vials contain 3 mL solution at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caffeine citrate (60 mg/vial) equivalent to 10 mg/mL caffeine base (30 mg/vial).

CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Injection

NDC 0087-6011-42: 3 mL vial, individually packaged in a carton.

CAFCIT® (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution

NDC 0087-6111-42: 3 mL vial (NOT CHILD-RESISTANT), 10 vials per white polypropylene child resistant container.

Store at 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

Preservative Free. For single use only. Discard unused portion.

ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Detach “Instructions for Use” from the package insert and dispense with CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution prescription.

Each bottle (vial) of CAFCIT contains a total of 60 mg of caffeine citrate in 3 mL (20 mg/mL).

Manufactured by: Ben Venue Laboratories, Inc., Bedford, Ohio 44146. Distributed by: Mead Johnson & Company, Evansville, IN 47721 U.S.A. Revised May 2003

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Side Effects & Drug Interactions


SIDE EFFECTS

Overall, the reported number of adverse events in the double-blind period of the controlled trial was similar for the CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) (caffeine citrate) and placebo groups. The following table shows adverse events that occurred in the double-blind period of the controlled trial and that were more frequent in CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) treated patients than placebo.

ADVERSE EVENTS THAT OCCURRED MORE FREQUENTLY IN CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) TREATED PATIENTS THAN PLACEBO DURING DOUBLE-BLIND THERAPY

Adverse Event (AE) CAFCIT (caffeine citrate)
N=46
n (%)
Placebo
N=39
n (%)
BODY AS A WHOLE
Accidental Injury 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Feeding Intolerance 4 (8.7) 2 (5.1)
Sepsis 2 (4.3) 0 (0.0)
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Hemorrhage 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Necrotizing Enterocolitis 2 (4.3) 1 (2.6)
Gastritis 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
HEMIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Disseminated Intravascular 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Coagulation
METABOLIC AND NUTRITIVE DISORDERS
Acidosis 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Healing Abnormal 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Cerebral Hemorrhage 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Dyspnea 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Lung Edema 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
SKIN AND APPENDAGES
Dry Skin 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Rash 4 (8.7) 3 (7.7)
Skin Breakdown 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
SPECIAL SENSES
Retinopathy of Prematurity 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
UROGENITAL SYSTEM
Kidney Failure 1 (2.2) 0 (0.0)

In addition to the cases above, three cases of necrotizing enterocolitis were diagnosed in patients receiving CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) during the open-label phase of the study.

Three of the infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis during the trial died. All had been exposed to caffeine. Two were randomized to caffeine, and one placebo patient was “rescued” with open-label caffeine for uncontrolled apnea.

Adverse events described in the published literature include: central nervous system stimulation (i.e., irritability, restlessness, jitteriness), cardiovascular effects (i.e., tachycardia, increased left ventricular output, and increased stroke volume), gastrointestinal effects (i.e., increased gastric aspirate, gastrointestinal intolerance), alterations in serum glucose (hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia) and renal effects (increased urine flow rate, increased creatinine clearance, and increased sodium and calcium excretion). Published long-term follow-up studies have not shown caffeine to adversely affect neurological development or growth parameters.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is known to be the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of caffeine. Therefore, caffeine has the potential to interact with drugs that are substrates for CYP1A2, inhibit CYP1A2, or induce CYP1A2.

Few data exist on drug interactions with caffeine in preterm neonates. Based on adult data, lower doses of caffeine may be needed following coadministration of drugs which are reported to decrease caffeine elimination (e.g., cimetidine and ketoconazole) and higher caffeine doses may be needed following coadministration of drugs that increase caffeine elimination (e.g., phenobarbital and phenytoin).

Caffeine administered concurrently with ketoprofen reduced the urine volume in 4 healthy volunteers. The clinical significance of this interaction in preterm neonates is not known.

Interconversion between caffeine and theophylline has been reported in preterm neonates. The concurrent use of these drugs is not recommended.

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Warnings & Precautions


WARNINGS

During the double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, six cases of necrotizing enterocolitis developed among the 85 infants studied (caffeine=46, placebo=39), with three cases resulting in death. Five of the six patients with necrotizing enterocolitis were randomized to or had been exposed to CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) .

Reports in the published literature have raised a question regarding the possible association between the use of methylxanthines and development of necrotizing enterocolitis, although a causal relationship between methylxanthine use and necrotizing enterocolitis has not been established. Therefore, as with all preterm infants, patients being treated with CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be carefully monitored for the development of necrotizing enterocolitis.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Apnea of prematurity is a diagnosis of exclusion. Other causes of apnea (e.g., central nervous system disorders, primary lung disease, anemia, sepsis, metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular abnormalities, or obstructive apnea) should be ruled out or properly treated prior to initiation of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) .

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and in cases of caffeine overdose, seizures have been reported. CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be used with caution in infants with seizure disorders.

The duration of treatment of apnea of prematurity in the placebo-controlled trial was limited to 10 to 12 days. The safety and efficacy of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) for longer periods of treatment have not been established. Safety and efficacy of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) for use in the prophylactic treatment of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or prior to extubation in mechanically ventilated infants have also not been established.

Cardiovascular

Although no cases of cardiac toxicity were reported in the placebo-controlled trial, caffeine has been shown to increase heart rate, left ventricular output, and stroke volume in published studies. Therefore, CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be used with caution in infants with cardiovascular disease.

Renal and Hepatic Systems

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be administered with caution in infants with impaired renal or hepatic function. Serum concentrations of caffeine should be monitored and dose administration of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be adjusted to avoid toxicity in this population. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Elimination, Special Populations).

Information for Patients

Parents/caregivers of patients receiving CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) Oral Solution should receive the following instructions:

  1. CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) does not contain any preservatives and each vial is for single use only. Any unused portion of the medication should be discarded.
  2. It is important that the dose of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) be measured accurately, i.e., with a 1cc or other appropriate syringe.
  3. Consult your physician if the baby continues to have apnea events; do not increase the dose of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) without medical consultation.
  4. Consult your physician if the baby begins to demonstrate signs of gastroin-testinal intolerance, such as abdominal distention, vomiting, or bloody stools, or seems lethargic.
  5. CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to its administration. Vials containing discolored solution or visible particulate matter should be discarded.

Laboratory Tests

Prior to initiation of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) , baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants previously treated with theophylline, since preterm infants metabolize theophylline to caffeine. Likewise, baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in infants born to mothers who consumed caffeine prior to delivery, since caffeine readily crosses the placenta.

In the placebo-controlled clinical trial, caffeine levels ranged from 8 to 40 mg/L. A therapeutic plasma concentration range of caffeine could not be determined from the placebo-controlled clinical trial. Serious toxicity has been reported in the literature when serum caffeine levels exceed 50 mg/L. Serum concentrations of caffeine may need to be monitored periodically throughout treatment to avoid toxicity.

In clinical studies reported in the literature, cases of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia have been observed. Therefore, serum glucose may need to be periodically monitored in infants receiving CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) .

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, caffeine (as caffeine base) administered in drinking water was not carcinogenic in male rats at doses up to 102 mg/kg or in female rats at doses up to 170 mg/kg (approximately 2 and 4 times, respectively, the maximum recommended intravenous loading dose for infants on a mg/m2 basis). In an 18-month study in C57BL/6 mice, no evidence of tumorigenicity was seen at dietary doses up to 55 mg/kg (less than the max-imum recommended intravenous loading dose for infants on a mg/m2 basis).

Caffeine (as caffeine base) increased the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) SCE/cell metaphase (exposure time dependent) in an in vivo mouse metaphase analysis. Caffeine also potentiated the genotoxicity of known mutagens and enhanced the micronuclei formation (5-fold) in folate-deficient mice. However, caffeine did not increase chromosomal aberrations in in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO) and human lymphocyte assays and was not mutagenic in an in vitro CHO/hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) gene mutation assay, except at cytotoxic concentrations. In addition, caffeine was not clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.

Caffeine (as caffeine base) administered to male rats at 50 mg/kg/day subcu-taneously (approximately equal to the maximum recommended intravenous loading dose for infants on a mg/m2 basis) for four days prior to mating with untreated females, caused decreased male reproductive performance in addition to causing embryotoxicity. In addition, long-term exposure to high oral doses of caffeine (3.0 g over 7 weeks) was toxic to rat testes as manifested by spermatogenic cell degeneration.

Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category C

Concern for the teratogenicity of caffeine is not relevant when administered to infants. In studies performed in adult animals, caffeine (as caffeine base) administered to pregnant mice as sustained release pellets at 50 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended intravenous loading dose for infants on a mg/m2 basis), during the period of organogenesis, caused a low incidence of cleft palate and exencephaly in the fetuses. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Overdosage & Contraindications


OVERDOSE

Following overdose, serum caffeine levels have ranged from approximately 24 mg/L (a post marketing spontaneous case report in which an infant exhibited irritability, poor feeding and insomnia) to 350 mg/L. Serious toxicity has been associated with serum levels greater than 50 mg/L (see PRECAUTIONS - Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Signs and symptoms reported in the literature after caffeine overdose in preterm infants include fever, tachypnea, jitteriness, insomnia, fine tremor of the extremities, hypertonia, opisthotonos, tonic-clonic movements, nonpurposeful jaw and lip movements, vomiting, hyperglycemia, elevated blood urea nitrogen, and elevated total leukocyte concentration. Seizures have also been reported in cases of overdose. One case of caffeine overdose complicated by development of intraventricular hemorrhage and long-term neurological sequelae has been reported. Another case of caffeine citrate overdose (from New Zealand; not CAFCIT) of an estimated 600 mg caffeine citrate (approximately 322 mg/kg) administered over 40 minutes was complicated by tachycardia, ST depression, respiratory distress, heart failure, gastric distention, acidosis and a severe extravasation burn with tissue necrosis at the peripheral intravenous injection site. No deaths associated with caffeine overdose have been reported in preterm infants.

Treatment of caffeine overdose is primarily symptomatic and supportive. Caffeine levels have been shown to decrease after exchange transfusions. Convulsions may be treated with intravenous administration of diazepam or a barbiturate such as pentobarbital sodium.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to any of its components.

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Clinical Pharmacology


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Caffeine is structurally related to other methylxanthines, theophylline and theobromine. It is a bronchial smooth muscle relaxant, a CNS stimulant, a cardiac muscle stimulant and a diuretic.

Although the mechanism of action of caffeine in apnea of prematurity is not known, several mechanisms have been hypothesized. These include: (1) stimulation of the respiratory center, (2) increased minute ventilation, (3) decreased threshold to hypercapnia, (4) increased response to hypercapnia, (5) increased skeletal muscle tone, (6) decreased diaphragmatic fatigue, (7) increased metabolic rate, and (8) increased oxygen consumption.

Most of these effects have been attributed to antagonism of adenosine receptors, both A1 and A2 subtypes, by caffeine, which has been demonstrated in receptor binding assays and observed at concentrations approximating those achieved therapeutically.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: After oral administration of 10 mg caffeine base/kg to preterm neonates, the peak plasma level (Cmax) for caffeine ranged from 6-10 mg/L and the mean time to reach peak concentration (Tmax) ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours. The Tmax was not affected by formula feeding. The absolute bioavailability, however, was not fully examined in preterm neonates.

Distribution: Caffeine is rapidly distributed into the brain. Caffeine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of preterm neonates approximate their plasma levels. The mean volume of distribution of caffeine in infants (0.8-0.9 L/kg) is slightly higher than that in adults (0.6 L/kg). Plasma protein binding data are not available for neonates or infants. In adults, the mean plasma protein binding in vitro is reported to be approximately 36%.

Metabolism:Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is involved in caffeine biotransformation. Caffeine metabolism in preterm neonates is limited due to their immature hepatic enzyme systems.

Interconversion between caffeine and theophylline has been reported in preterm neonates; caffeine levels are approximately 25% of theophylline levels after theophylline administration and approximately 3-8% of caffeine administered would be expected to convert to theophylline.

Elimination: In young infants, the elimination of caffeine is much slower than that in adults due to immature hepatic and/or renal function. Mean half-life (T1/2) and fraction excreted unchanged in urine (Ae) of caffeine in infants have been shown to be inversely related to gestational/postconceptual age. In neonates, the T1/2 is approximately 3-4 days and the Ae is approximately 86% (within 6 days). By 9 months of age, the metabolism of caffeine approximates that seen in adults (T1/2 = 5 hours and Ae = 1%).

Special Populations: Studies examining the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in neonates with hepatic or renal insufficiency have not been conducted. CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be administered with caution in preterm neonates with impaired renal or hepatic function. Serum concentrations of caffeine should be monitored and dose administration of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be adjusted to avoid toxicity in this population.

Clinical Studies

One multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial compared CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) to placebo in eighty-five (85) preterm infants (gestational age 28 to < 33 weeks) with apnea of prematurity. Apnea of prematurity was defined as having at least 6 apnea episodes of greater than 20 seconds duration in a 24-hour period with no other identifiable cause of apnea. A 1 mL/kg (20 mg/kg caffeine citrate providing 10 mg/kg as caffeine base) loading dose of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) was administered intravenously, followed by a 0.25 mL/kg (5 mg/kg caffeine citrate providing 2.5 mg/kg of caffeine base) daily maintenance dose administered either intravenously or orally (generally through a feeding tube). The duration of treatment in this study was limited to 10 to 12 days. The protocol allowed infants to be “rescued” with open-label caffeine citrate treatment if their apnea remained uncontrolled during the double-blind phase of the trial.

The percentage of patients without apnea on day 2 of treatment (24-48 hours after the loading dose) was significantly greater with CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) than placebo. The following table summarizes the clinically relevant endpoints evaluated in this study:

CAFCIT Placebo p-value
Number of patients evaluated1 45 37
% of patients with zero apnea events on day 2 26.7 8.1 0.03
Apnea rate on day 2 (per 24 hrs.) 4.9 7.2 0.134
% of patients with 50% reduction in apnea events from baseline on day 2 76 57 0.07
1 Of 85 patients who received drug, 3 were not included in the efficacy analysis because they had < 6 apnea episodes/24 hours at baseline.

In this 10-12 day trial, the mean number of days with zero apnea events was 3.0 in the CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) group and 1.2 in the placebo group. The mean number of days with a 50% reduction from baseline in apnea events was 6.8 in the CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) group and 4.6 in the placebo group.

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Medication Guide


PATIENT INFORMATION

Information and Instructions for Use

This leaflet tells you about CAFClT (KAF-sit) and how to give it to your baby. Read the following information before giving this medicine to your baby. Completely discuss CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) with your baby's doctor. Continue to discuss any questions you have about this medicine at your baby's checkups.

After you remove your baby's dose, throw away the open bottle (vial) and all medicine left in it. Use each vial of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) for only one dose. There will be extra medicine left in the vial after one dose is removed. Leftover medicine should not be used because CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) does not contain preservatives. Once the vial is open, any medicine that is not used right away must be discarded.

What is CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) ?

The main ingredient of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) is caffeine citrate. CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) is a clear, colorless, medicine to treat apnea of prematurity - short periods when premature babies stop breathing. Apnea of prematurity is due to the baby's breathing centers not being fully developed.

How do I give CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) to my baby?

Give CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) to your baby once a day, at about the same time each day. Your baby's doctor will prescribe the right amount of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) based on your baby's weight and age. Carefully follow the doctor's dosing instructions.

Measure the dose of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) carefully. Your baby's doctor, nurse, or pharmacist will give you a suitable syringe or supply of syringes to measure small but accurate doses of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) .

Never change (increase or decrease) your baby's dose without speaking to your baby's doctor.

If your baby continues to have periods of apnea, call your baby's doctor right away.

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) can be swallowed by mouth or given through a feeding tube. Based on your baby's own situation, your baby's doctor or other healthcare professional should teach you how to give CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) correctly.

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) should be clear and colorless. Before giving CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) , look for small particles, cloudiness, or discoloration in the medicine. Do not use vials that contain cloudy or discolored medicine, or any visible particles.

CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) does NOT contain any preservatives. Do not open the vial until it is time for your baby to receive the dose of medicine. Use each vial only once. After you remove your baby's dose, throw away the vial and all medicine left in the opened vial.

Ten (10) vials of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) are packaged in a child-resistant container. CAFClT vials are NOT CHILD-RESISTANT. Always store vials of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) in the child-resistant container. Follow the instructions below to open the child-resistant container, to open a vial of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) , and to remove a dose of medicine from the vial.

To open the child-resistant container that holds the vials of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) :

(Instructions with pictures are also printed on the top of the container)

  1. Hold the bottom-half of the child-resistant container with one hand and push the lower semicircular section on the front of the container with your thumb.
  2. With your other hand, pull the cover up until you hear it click.
  3. While holding the ends of the bottom-half of the container with both hands, place both index fingers on the two semicircular locking tabs on the sides of the container.
  4. Press the two tabs and raise the cover up.

To open a vial of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate):

  1. Hold the blue plastic top between the thumb and index finger. Use your thumb to flip the blue plastic top completely off the vial.
  2. Carefully lift up the metal ring.
  3. Pull the metal ring away from the vial and then pull it down towards the bottom of the vial without twisting the ring.
  4. After you pull the ring down and the metal band around the top of the vial is completely broken through, carefully remove the rest of the metal band by pulling it out and away from the vial.
  5. Being careful not to spill any medicine, remove the rubber stopper from the top of the vial.

To remove the prescribed dose from the vial:

You will need a small syringe to measure the exact amount of medicine that your baby's doctor prescribed. Your baby's doctor, nurse or pharmacist will give you this small syringe. Note that a milliliter (mL) is the same as a cubic centimeter (cc).

  1. Insert the tip of the syringe in the medicine and pull up on the plunger to draw the medicine into the syringe. Remove slightly more of the medicine than the exact amount to be given to your baby.
  2. Turn the syringe tip up so that any air in it rises to the top. Remove the air by gently pushing up on the syringe plunger. Continue to push the syringe plunger up to remove any extra medicine in the syringe, until only the exact number of milliliters (or cubic centimeters) that your baby's doctor prescribed remains in the syringe.
  3. Give the CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) to your baby as your baby's doctor instructed.
  4. Throw away the sharp metal pieces, the rubber stopper, the open vial, and any medicine that remains in it after your baby receives the dose.

What are possible side effects of CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) ?

Your baby may or may not develop side effects from taking CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) . Each baby is different. If your baby develops one or more of the following symptoms, speak with your baby's doctor right away:

  • restlessness, jitteriness or shakiness
  • faster heart beat
  • increased urination (increased diaper wetting)

The following symptoms may be caused by serious bowel or stomach problems. Call your baby's doctor right away if your baby develops:

  • bloated abdomen (stomach area)
  • vomiting
  • bloody stools (bloody bowel movements)
  • loss of energy, lethargy (acting sluggish)

This is not a complete list of side effects reported with CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) . If you have a concern about your baby, speak with your baby's doctor. If you want more information about CAFCIT (caffeine citrate) , speak with your baby's doctor or pharmacist.

 

Cafcit

 

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Cafcit Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, headache, trouble sleeping, restlessness, poor feeding, rash or dry skin may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: trouble breathing, vision changes, change in the amount of urine.

In rare (sometimes, fatal) cases, this medication has been associated with a serious stomach condition (necrotizing enterocolitis). Tell your doctor immediately if your infant experiences the following: lack of energy (lethargy), severe vomiting, stomach/abdominal bloating (distension), bloody stool.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking caffeine citrate, tell your doctor or pharmacist if your infant is allergic to it; or if your infant has any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your infant's medical history, especially of: heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, stomach problems (e.g., peptic ulcers, necrotizing enterocolitis), seizures.

Caution is advised when using this drug in infants because they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially the stimulant effects (e.g., trouble sleeping, restlessness, nervousness).

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This medication passes into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

Cafcit

 

Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
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Disclaimer

Cafcit Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products your infant may use, especially of: adenosine, cimetidine, dipyridamole, fluvoxamine, lithium, certain macrolide antibiotics (e.g., clarithromycin, erythromycin), theophylline.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. Symptoms of overdose may include stomach pain, anxiety, agitation, confusion, irregular or fast heartbeat, frequent urination, muscle twitching, ringing in the ears, trouble sleeping, and seizures.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., caffeine levels, blood sugars) should be performed periodically to monitor your infant's progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

 

Cafcit

 

Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD Slideshow Pictures Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD
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Cafcit Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Cafcit

Generic Name: caffeine citrate (oral) (Pronunciation: KAF een SIT rate)

 

  • What is caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What are the possible side effects of caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • How should I take caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Cafcit)?
  • What should I avoid while taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What other drugs will affect caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • Where can I get more information?

 

What is caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Caffeine citrate is a central nervous system stimulant. It also has effects on the lungs and metabolism.

Caffeine citrate is used to treat breathing problems in premature infants.

Caffeine citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Get emergency medical help if your child has any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using caffeine citrate and call your doctor at once if your child has any of these serious side effects:

  • stomach pain, tenderness, bloating,
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • green-colored vomit;
  • blood in the stools;
  • unusual weakness;
  • seizure (convulsions);
  • twitching or uncontrolled muscle movements; or
  • fever, fast or slow heart rate.

Less serious side effects may include sleep problems, loss of appetite, fussiness, or excessive crying.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is the most important information I should know about caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Caffeine citrate should not be given to a child who has had an allergic reaction to it in the past.

Before using caffeine citrate, tell the doctor if your child is allergic to any drugs, or has a seizure disorder, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, or high or low blood sugar.

Do not use the medication for longer than 12 days without the advice of your child's doctor.

Each bottle of caffeine citrate is for one use only, even if your child does not use the entire bottle for a single dose. Throw away any medication left over in the bottle after measuring your child's dose.

Call your doctor if the child's breathing symptoms do not improve after using caffeine citrate.

To be sure caffeine citrate is helping your child's condition, the child's blood will need to be tested on a regular basis. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Related Drug Centers
  • Cafcit

 

Cafcit

 

Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
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Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD Slideshow Pictures Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD
Worst Smog Cities in America Slideshow Worst Smog Cities in America Slideshow

 

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Cafcit Patient Information including How Should I Take

In this Article

  • What is caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What are the possible side effects of caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • How should I take caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Cafcit)?
  • What should I avoid while taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What other drugs will affect caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Caffeine citrate should not be given to a child who has had an allergic reaction to it in the past.

Before using caffeine citrate, tell the doctor if your child is allergic to any drugs, or if the child has:

  • seizures;
  • heart disease;
  • kidney disease;
  • liver disease; or
  • high or low blood sugar.

If your child has any of these conditions, he or she may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take this medication.

This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby and should not be taken by a woman who is pregnant. Caffeine citrate should also not be taken by a woman who is breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Use this medication exactly as it was prescribed for your child. Do not use the medication in larger amounts, or use it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the instructions on the prescription label.

Caffeine citrate is for short-term use only. Do not use the medication for longer than 12 days without the advice of your child's doctor.

Measure caffeine citrate with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Each bottle of caffeine citrate is for one use only, even if your child does not use the entire bottle for a single dose. Throw away any medication left over in the bottle after measuring your child's dose.

Do not use the medication if the liquid has changed colors or has particles in it. Call your doctor for a new prescription.

Call your doctor if the child's breathing symptoms do not improve after using caffeine citrate.

To be sure caffeine citrate is helping your child's condition, the child's blood will need to be tested on a regular basis. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Store the medication at room temperature away from heat and moisture. Do not open a bottle of caffeine citrate until you are ready to give the dose. This medication contains no preservatives.

Related Drug Centers
  • Cafcit

 

 

 

Cafcit

 

Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
Hidden Home Hazards That Can Harm Your Lungs
Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD Slideshow Pictures Energy-Boosting Foods for COPD
Worst Smog Cities in America Slideshow Worst Smog Cities in America Slideshow

 

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Cafcit Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

In this Article

  • What is caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What are the possible side effects of caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • How should I take caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Cafcit)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Cafcit)?
  • What should I avoid while taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • What other drugs will affect caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What happens if I miss a dose (Cafcit)?

Use the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your child's next dose, skip the missed dose and use the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Cafcit)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have given your child too much of this medicine.

Overdose symptoms may include loss of appetite, sleep problems, fussiness, or excessive crying.

What should I avoid while taking caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Avoid giving the child food or drinks that contain caffeine, such as cola or chocolate milk.

What other drugs will affect caffeine citrate (Cafcit)?

Before using caffeine citrate, tell your child's doctor if the child is using any of the following drugs:

  • cimetidine (Tagamet);
  • ketoconazole (Nizoral);
  • phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton);
  • phenytoin (Dilantin); or
  • theophylline (Elixophyllin, Slo-Bid, Theo-Dur, Uniphyl, and others).

There may be other drugs not listed that can affect caffeine citrate. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you are giving to your child. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your child's doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about caffeine citrate.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2010 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.03. Revision date: 4/12/2009.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

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